Collective Efficacy Scale (CE-SCALE)

Collective Efficacy

Collective efficacy is the shared perceptions of teachers in a school that the efforts of the faculty as a whole will have positive effects on students. The Collective Efficacy Scale (CE-Scale) is a 21-item scale, which measures the collective efficacy of a school.

Validity and Reliability Evidence of the CE Scale

The development of the 21- collective efficacy scale included several phases. Scale development began initially by modifying items from the original Gibson and Dembo (1984) teacher efficacy scale to reflect collective efficacy (i.e., changing the object of the efficacy items from "I" to "We"). Next, additional items were written in response to a review by a panel of experts with experience in teacher efficacy research. Following this review, the items were subjected to a field test and then a pilot test with of 46 teachers in 46 schools (1 teacher from each school). Results from the pilot study suggested that the 21 items did indeed offer a valid and reliable measure of collective efficacy (for a detailed discussion of the pilot study results see Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk, Hoy, 2000).

Based on the promise of the results from the initial phases of our study, we decided to test the criterion-related validity, predictive validity and reliability of scores on the collective efficacy scale in a more comprehensive sample. A sample of 452 teachers in 47 randomly selected elementary schools in a large urban district in the Midwest completed the collective efficacy survey. At the school level (for a rationale see Goddard, in press), the 21 collective efficacy items were submitted to a principal axis factor analysis. All items loaded strongly on a single factor and explained 57.89 percent of the item variation. The alpha coefficient of reliability was strong (.96).

Criterion-related validity of the school collective efficacy scores was tested in several ways. The criterion variables examined were personal teaching efficacy (Hoy & Woolfolk, 1993), faculty trust in colleagues (Hoy & Kupersmith, 1985), and environmental press (Hoy & Sabo, 1998). ). Personal teaching efficacy is a measure of a teacher's self-perceptions of capability to educate students. It was predicted that when aggregated to the school level, teachers' perceptions of personal efficacy would be moderately and positively related to collective teacher efficacy; a high correlation was not expected because personal and collective teacher efficacy have different referents (self versus group). Moreover, the collective teacher efficacy measure directly assesses perceptions of both perceived competence and task whereas the personal teacher efficacy measure includes only items about competence. As predicted, there was a moderate and positive (r=. 54, p<.01) correlation between personal teacher efficacy aggregated at the school level and collective teacher efficacy.

A positive relationship between faculty trust in colleagues and collective teacher efficacy was predicted, and similar to the pilot results, trust in colleagues was positively and significantly related to collective teacher efficacy (r=.62, p<.01).

Finally, we predicted no relationship between collective teacher efficacy and environmental press or the extent to which teachers experience "unreasonable community demands" (Hoy & Sabo, 1998). There is no a priori reason to expect that teachers" assessments of group capabilities would be associated with their perceptions of external demands. In other words, a demanding task and external pressures do not necessarily make people feel more or less capable. It is how they handle the pressure that determines capability. As predicted, the observed relationship between collective teacher efficacy and environmental press was not statistically significant (r=.05, n.s.).

As a test of predictive validity, we employed hierarchical linear modeling to show that scores on the collective efficacy scale were significant predictors of the mathematics and reading achievement (measured by the 7th Edition of Metropolitan Achievement Test) of 7016 2nd, 3rd, and 5th grade students who attended the 47 sampled schools.

Taken together, these results provide, content, criterion-related, and predictive validity evidence for scores on the collective efficacy scale as well as strong reliability evidence.

Scoring Key

Ten of the items in this scale are reversed scored, that is, "1" is scored "6," "2" is scored "5," etc. For example, the item, "If a child doesn't want to learn teachers here give up," is scored in reverse. Thus, a strongly agree "6" would be scored "1," suggesting low efficacy.

To score the scale:

  1. First reverse scores on the following items: 3, 4, 8, 10, 11, 12, 16, 18, 19, 20.
  2. Then add the scores for all 21 items: the greater the sum, the higher the collective efficacy.
  3. Average all the individual teacher scores to find a collective efficacy score of the school.

References

Gibson, S., & Dembo, M. (1984). Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(4), 569-582.

Goddard, R.D., Hoy, W.K., Woolfolk, A. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and effect on student achievement. American Education Research Journal, 37(2), 479-507.

Goddard, R.D. (2002). A theoretical and empirical analysis of the measurement of collective efficacy: The development of a short form. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 93, 467-476.

Hoy, W.K., and Kupersmith, W.J. (1985). The meaning and measure of faculty trust. Educational and psychological research, 5(1), 1-10.

Hoy, W.K. and Sabo, D.J. (1998). Quality middle schools: Open and healthy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

Hoy, W. K. & Woolfolk, A. E. (1993). Teachers' sense of efficacy and the organizational health of schools. The Elementary School Journal, 93, 356-372.

Collective Efficacy Scale (CE-SCALE)

The Short Form of the Collective Efficacy Scale is a 12-item scale. Half of the items in this scale are reversed scored, that is, "1" is scored "6," "2" is scored "5," etc. For example, the item, "If a child doesn?t want to learn teachers here give up," is scored in reverse. Thus, a strongly agree "6" would be scored "1," suggesting low efficacy.

Validity and Reliability Evidence for the Short Form

Goddard (2002) built on the work of Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk, Hoy, 2000) to develop and test a 12-item short Collective Efficacy Scale. The psychometric properties of the short form are impressive and at least equivalent to the longer 21-item form; the validity and reliability of the short form are strong (Goddard, 2002).

Scoring Key for the Short Form of the CE-Scale

To score the scale:

  1. First, reverse scores on the following items: 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12.
  2. Next, compute the average item score for each of the 12 items; that is, for each item, sum all the individual scores and divide by the number of teachers in the school for which you have a response. You will have an average school score for each of the 12 items.
  3. Finally, sum the average item scores for all 12 items and divide by 12; the average collective efficacy (CE) score for your school will be between 1 and 6.

Computing a Standardized Score for the Collective Efficacy Scale.

To convert the collective efficacy score to standardized score with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100, which we call SdS score, use the following formula:

SdS for CE=100(CE-4.1201)/.6392+500

First, compute the difference between your school's average collective efficacy score and the mean for the normative sample (CE-4.1201). Then multiply the difference by one hundred [100(CE-4.1201)]. Next divide the product by the standard deviation of the normative sample (.6392). Then add 500 to the result. You have computed a standardized score (SdS) for the collective efficacy of your school.

You have standardized your school scores against the normative data provided in a representative Ohio sample. For example, if your school score is 700, it is two standard deviations above the average score of all schools in the sample; that is, the school has stronger collective efficacy than 97% of the schools in the sample. You may recognize this system as the one used in reporting individual scores on the SAT, CEEB, and GRE. The range of these scores is presented below:

If the score is 200, it is lower than 99% of the schools.
If the score is 300, it is lower than 97% of the schools.
If the score is 400, it is lower than 84% of the schools.
If the score is 500, it is average.
If the score is 600, it is higher than 84% of the schools.
If the score is 700, it is higher than 97% of the schools.
If the score is 800, it is higher than 99% of the schools.

References

Goddard, R.D., Hoy, W.K., Woolfolk, A. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and effect on student achievement. American Education Research Journal, 37(2), 479-507.

Goddard, R.D. (2002). A theoretical and empirical analysis of the measurement of collective efficacy: The development of a short form. Educational and Psychological Measurement.

Ohio State School of Education
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