A Model of the Dynamics of Student Achievement


A strong culture of academic optimism is composed of three elements: collective faculty trust in students and parents, collective efficacy, and the enactment of academic emphasis. These elements identify school conditions that foster achievement.

A culture academic optimism has three important consequences for student achievement.

Challenging goals and cooperation among students, teachers, and parents lead to strong motivation that produces a high level of achievement, which in turn reinforces both relational trust and academic optimism.

These relations are pictorially depicted in the attached model showing how school properties promote student achievement.

Hoy, W. K. (in press). School Characteristics that Make a Difference for the Achievement of all Students: A 40-year Academic Odyssey. Journal of Educational Administration.

Forsyth, P. B., Adams, C., & Hoy, W. K. (2011). Collective Trust: Why Schools Can't Improve Without It. New York; TC Press.

Ohio State School of Education
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