## School Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Organizational citizenship behavior is the extent to which teachers in a school go out of their way to voluntarily help students, teachers, and others to be successful.

#### Reliability and Validity of the OCB Scale

The OCB Scale is a 12-item Likert-type scale that measures the degree to which the teaching faculty of a school engages in organizational citizenship behavior; the higher the score, the greater the extent of organizational citizenship of the school. The OCB is a refinement of the earlier OCBS. The reliability of the scale is consistently high-range = .86 to .93 (DiPaola, Tarter, & Hoy, 2005). The construct validity has also been supported in three separate factor analyses (DiPaola, Tarter, & Hoy, 2005).

#### For further information:

DiPaola, M., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2001). Organizational citizenship behavior in schools and its relationship to school climate. Journal of School Leadership, 11 (5), pp. 424-47. This article describes the early version of the scale, the OCBS Scale.

DiPaola, M, Tarter, C., & Hoy, W. K. (2005). Measuring organizational citizenship in schools: The OCB Scale. In Wayne K. Hoy & Cecil Miskel (Eds.) Leadership and Reform in American Public Schools. Greenwich, CT: Information Age. This chapter describes the refined OCB Scale.

#### Scoring Key

1. Score items 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, and 12 as:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 from strongly disagree to strongly agree.

2. Reverse score items 2 and 10 as:

1=6, 2=5, 3=4, 4=3, 5=2, and 6=1

3. Compute an average school item score (ASIS) for each item:

For each item, add scores for all individuals on the item and divide by number of individuals.

4. Compute the school score:

Add all the average school item scores (ASIS) and divide by 12 (number of items).

### FOR HIGH SCHOOLS:

#### Computing A Standardized Score using the OCB Scale for purposes of comparison

To convert the school score to a standardized score with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100. Use the following formula:

Standard Score for School Organizational Citizenship Behavior = [100*(OCB-3.69)/.19]+500

That is, compute the difference between your school OCB score and the mean for the normative sample (OCB-3.69). Then multiply the difference by one hundred [100*( OCB-3.69)]. Next divide the product by the standard deviation of the normative sample (.19). Then add 500 to the result. You have computed your school's Standard Score for Organizational Citizenship Behavior.

You have standardized your school scores against the normative data provided in an Ohio sample of high schools. For example, if your school score is 700, it is two standard deviations above the average score on organizational citizenship behavior of all schools in the sample; that is, the school has a more citizenship behavior than 97% of the schools in the sample. You may recognize this system as the one used in reporting individual scores on the SAT, CEEB, and GRE. The range of these scores is presented below:

If the score is 200, it is lower than 99% of the schools.

If the score is 300, it is lower than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 400, it is lower than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 500, it is average.

If the score is 600, it is higher than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 700, it is higher than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 800, it is higher than 99% of the schools.

### FOR MIDDLE SCHOOLS:

#### Computing A Standardized Score using the OCB Scale for purposes of comparison

To convert the school score to a standardized score with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100. Use the following formula:

Standard Score for School Organizational Citizenship Behavior = [100*(OCB-3.74)/.24]+500

That is, compute the difference between your school OCB score and the mean for the normative sample (OCB-3.74). Then multiply the difference by one hundred [100*( OCB-3.74)]. Next divide the product by the standard deviation of the normative sample (.24). Then add 500 to the result. You have computed your school's Standard Score for Organizational Citizenship Behavior.

You have standardized your school scores against the normative data provided in an Ohio sample of middle schools. For example, if your school score is 700, it is two standard deviations above the average score on organizational citizenship behavior of all schools in the sample; that is, the school has a more citizenship behavior than 97% of the schools in the sample. You may recognize this system as the one used in reporting individual scores on the SAT, CEEB, and GRE. The range of these scores is presented below:

If the score is 200, it is lower than 99% of the schools.

If the score is 300, it is lower than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 400, it is lower than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 500, it is average.

If the score is 600, it is higher than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 700, it is higher than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 800, it is higher than 99% of the schools.

### FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS:

#### Computing A Standardized Score using the OCB Scale for purposes of comparison

To convert the school score to a standardized score with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 100. Use the following formula:

Standard Score for School Organizational Citizenship Behavior = [100*(OCB-3.86)/.27]+500

That is, compute the difference between your school OCB score and the mean for the normative sample (OCB-3.86). Then multiply the difference by one hundred [100*( OCB-3.86)]. Next divide the product by the standard deviation of the normative sample (.27). Then add 500 to the result. You have computed your school's Standard Score for Organizational Citizenship Behavior.

You have standardized your school scores against the normative data provided in an Ohio sample of elementary schools. For example, if your school score is 700, it is two standard deviations above the average score on organizational citizenship behavior of all schools in the sample; that is, the school has a more citizenship behavior than 97% of the schools in the sample. You may recognize this system as the one used in reporting individual scores on the SAT, CEEB, and GRE. The range of these scores is presented below:

If the score is 200, it is lower than 99% of the schools.

If the score is 300, it is lower than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 400, it is lower than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 500, it is average.

If the score is 600, it is higher than 84% of the schools.

If the score is 700, it is higher than 97% of the schools.

If the score is 800, it is higher than 99% of the schools.