School Mindfulness Scale

School Mindfulness is the extent to which teachers and administrators in a school carefully and regularly look for problems, prevent problems from becoming crises, are reluctant to oversimplify events, focus on teaching and learning, are resilient to problems, and defer to expertise.

Reliability and Validity of the M-Scale

The M-Scale is a 14-item Likert-type scale that measures the degree to which the school is a mindful organization; the higher the score, the greater the extent of school mindfulness.

The reliability of the scale is consistently high - usually .90 or higher (Hoy, Gage, & Tarter, 2004). The construct validity has also been supported in three factor analyses (Hoy, Gage, & Tarter, 2004).


Hoy, W. K., Gage, C. Q., & Tarter, C. J. (2004). Theoretical and empirical foundations of mindful schools. In W. K Hoy and C. Miskel (Eds.), Educational administration, policy, and reform: Research and measurement. Greenwich, CN; Information Age.

Scoring Key

The responses vary along a six-point scale from "Strongly Disagree (1)" to "Strongly Agree (6)."

Step 1:Score items 2, 3, 6, 9, 10, 12, 13 as:
Strongly Disagree =1 to Strongly Agree =6

Step 2: Reverse score items 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 14; score as:
Strongly Disagree =6 to Strongly Agree =1

Step 3: Compute an average school item score (ASIS) for each item: For each item, add scores for all individuals on the item and divide by number of individuals.

Step 4: Compute the school score:
Add all 14 average school item scores (ASIS) and divide by 14 (number of items).

Step 5: The higher the score, the greater the school mindfulness.

Ohio State School of Education
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