Research and Scholarship:

School Properties that Support Student Achievement

Organizational Climate of Schools

Organizational Climate is a general term that refers to teachers' perceptions of the work environment; it a set of internal characteristics that distinguishes one organization from another. Thus, school climate is a relatively enduring quality of the school environment that is experienced by participants, affects their behavior, and is based on their collective perceptions of behavior in schools (Hoy & Miskel, 2013). In brief, personality is to individual what climate is to organization. Two perspectives on school climate are the openness of school climate and the health of school climate.

Books

Hoy, W. K. & Miskel, C. G. (2013). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice, 9th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (2013). Instructional leadership: A research-based guide to learning in schools 4th edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Forsyth, Patrick B, Adams, Curt M., & Hoy, W. K. (2011). Collective trust: Why schools can't improve without it. New York: Teachers College Press.

Hoy, W. K., & Sabo, D. J. (1998). Quality middle schools: Open and healthy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Hoy, W. K., & Tarter, C. J. (1997). The road to open and healthy schools: A handbook for change, Elementary Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Hoy, W. K., & Tarter, C. J. (1997). The road to open and healthy schools: A handbook for change, Secondary Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Kottkamp, R. B. (1991). Open schools/healthy schools: Measuring organizational climate. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Key Articles

Hoy, W. K. (2012). School characteristics that make a difference for the achievement of all students: A 40-year academic odyssey. Journal of Educational Administration, 50, 76-97.

Smith, P.A., Hoy, W.K., & Sweetland, S.R. (2001), Organizational health of high schools and dimensions of faculty trust, Journal of School Leadership, 11, 135-151.

Hoy, W. K., Hannum, J, & Tschannen-Moran, M. (1998), Organizational climate and student achievement: A parsimonious and longitudinal view. Journal of School Leadership, 8, 336-359.

Hoy, W. K., & Hannum, J. (1997). Middle school climate: An empirical assessment of organizational health and student achievement. Educational Administration Quarterly, 33, 290-311.

Sabo, D., Barnes, K., & Hoy, W. K. (1996). Organizational health and decision participation: An empirical analysis of healthy interpersonal dynamics and teacher participation. Journal of School Leadership, 6, 576-599.

Academic Emphasis of Schools

Academic Emphasis is a school's press for academic achievement. High but achievable goals are set for students, the learning environment is orderly and serious, and students work hard and respect academic achievement.

Key References

Hoy, W. K. & Miskel, C. G. (2013). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice, 9th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hoy, W. K. (2012). School characteristics that make a difference for the achievement of all students: A 40-year academic odyssey. Journal of Educational Administration, 50, 76-97.

Hoy, W. K., & Tarter, C. J. (1997). The road to open and healthy schools: A handbook for change, Elementary Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Goddard, R. D., Sweetland, S. R., & Hoy, W. K. (2000). Academic emphasis of urban elementary schools and student achievement: A multi-level analysis. Educational Administration Quarterly, 36, 683-702.

Trust in Schools

Trust is making one vulnerable to another party or group based on the confidence that the other will act with benevolence, reliability, honesty, openness, and competence.

Key References

Hoy, W. K. & Miskel, C. G. (2013). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice, 9th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Forsyth, Patrick B, Adams, Curt M., & Hoy, W. K. (2011). Collective trust: Why schools can't improve without it. New York: Teachers College Press.

Geist, J., & Hoy, W. K. (2004). Cultivating a culture of trust: Enabling school structure, teacher professionalism, and academic press. Leading and Managing, 10, 1-18.

Hoy, W. K. (2002). Faculty trust: A key to student achievement. Journal of School Public Relations, 23, (2), 88-103.

Goddard, R. D., Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, W, K. (2001). Teacher trust in students and parents: A multilevel examination of the distribution and effects of teacher trust in urban elementary schools. Elementary School Journal, 102, 3-17.

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Hoy, W. K. (2000). A multidisciplinary analysis of the nature, meaning, and measurement of trust. Review of Educational Research, 70, 547-593.

Hoy, W. K. & Tschannen-Moran, M. (1999). Five faces of trust: An empirical confirmation in urban elementary schools. Journal of School Leadership, 9, 184-208.

Collective Efficacy of Schools

Collective Efficacy is shared perception of teachers in a school that the efforts of the faculty as a whole will have a positive impact on students.

Key References

Hoy, W. K. & Miskel, C. G. (2013). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice, 9th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Forsyth, Patrick B, Adams, Curt M., & Hoy, W. K. (2011). Collective trust: Why schools can't improve without it. New York: Teachers College Press.

Cybulski, T., Hoy, W. K., & Sweetland, S. R. (2005). The roles of collective efficacy and fiscal efficiency in school achievement. The Journal of Educational Administration, 43, 439-461.

Goddard, R. G., LoGerfo, L. & Hoy, W. K. (2004). High school accountability: The role of collective efficacy. Educational Policy, 18 (30), 403-425.

Goddard, R. G., Hoy, W. K., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2004). Collective efficacy: Theoretical development, empirical evidence, and future directions. Educational Researcher, 33, 3-13.

Hoy, W. K., Sweetland, S. R., & Smith, P. A. (2002). Toward an organizational model of achievement in high schools: The significance of collective efficacy. Educational Administration Quarterly, 38, 77-93.

Goddard, R. D., Hoy, W. K., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and impact on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 37, 479-508.

Academic Optimism of Schools

Academic Optimism is a collective set of beliefs about in which optimism is the overarching theme that unites efficacy and trust with academic emphasis. Teachers believe in themselves to achieve, the faculty believes in its students to achieve, and the faculty focuses on student achievement (Hoy & Miskel, 2013).

Key References

Hoy, W. K. & Miskel, C. G. (2013). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice, 9th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Forsyth, Patrick B, Adams, Curt M., & Hoy, W. K. (2011). Collective trust: Why schools can't improve without it. New York: Teachers College Press.

Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2006). Academic optimism of schools. In Wayne K. Hoy & Cecil Miskel (eds.). Contemporary issues in educational policy and school outcomes (pp. 135-156). Greenwich, CN: Information Age.

Smith, P. A. & Hoy, W. K. (2007). Academic optimism and student achievement in urban elementary schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 45, 556-568.

Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2006). Academic optimism of schools: A force for student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 43, 425-446.

McGuigan, L. & Hoy, W. K. (2006). Principal Leadership: Creating a Culture of Academic Optimism to Improve Achievement for All Students. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 5, 203-229.

Academic Optimism of Individuals

Teacher Academic Optimism is a set of beliefs held by individual teachers that they can teach effectively, that they trust students to learn, and that parents will support them to set and pursue high academic standards.

Hoy, A. W., Hoy, W. K. & Kurtz, N. M. (2008). Teacher's academic optimism: the development and test of a new construct, Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 821-832.

Fahy, P. F., Wu, H. C., & Hoy, W. K. (2010). Individual academic optimism of teachers: A new concept and its measure. In Wayne K. Hoy & Michael DiPaola (eds.). Analyzing school contexts: Influences of principals and teachers in the service of students. Greenwich, CN: Information Age.

Beard, K. S., Hoy, W. K., & Hoy, A. W. (in press). Academic optimism of individual teachers: Confirming a new construct. Teaching and Teacher Education.

Organizational Mindfulness of Schools

Organizational Mindfulness is the extent to teachers and administrators in a school carefully and regularly look for problems, prevent problems from becoming crises, are reluctant to oversimplify events, focus on teaching and learning, are resilient to problems, and defer to expertise.

Key References

Hoy, W. K. & Miskel, C. G. (2013). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice, 9th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hoy, W. K., Gage, Q. & Tarter, C, J. (2006). School mindfulness and faculty trust: Necessary conditions for each other. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42, 236-255.

Hoy, W. K. (2003). An analysis of enabling and mindful school structures: Some theoretical, research, and practical consideration. Journal of Educational Administration, 41, 87-108.

Enabling School Structures

Enabling School Structure is hierarchy that helps rather than hinders supported by a system of rules and regulations that is flexible, encouraging, and guides rather than punishes mistakes (Hoy & Miskel, 2013).

Key References

Hoy, W. K. & Miskel, C. G. (2013). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice, 9th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

McGuigan, L. & Hoy, W. K. (2006). Principal Leadership: Creating a Culture of Academic Optimism to Improve Achievement for All Students. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 5, 203-229.

Sinden, J. E., Hoy, W.K., & Sweetland, S. R. (2004). An analysis of enabling school structure: Theoretical, empirical, and research considerations. Journal of Educational Administration, 42, 462-478.

Hoy, W. K. (2003). An analysis of enabling and mindful school structures: Some theoretical, research, and practical consideration. Journal of Educational Administration, 41, 87-108.

Sinden, J., Hoy, W. K., & Sweetland, S. R. (2004). Enabling school structures: Principal leadership and organizational commitment of teachers. Journal of School Leadership, 14, 195-210,

Organizational Citizenship in Schools

Organizational Citizenship is faculty behavior that goes beyond the formal responsibilities of the role; such actions that occur freely to help others achieve the task at hand (Hoy & Miskel, 2008).

Key References

Hoy, W. K. & Miskel, C. G. (2013). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice, 9th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

DiPaola, M., & Hoy, W. K. (2005). Organizational properties that foster organizational citizenship. Journal of School Leadership, 15, 391-410.

DiPaola, M., & Hoy, W. K. (2005). Organizational citizenship of faculty and student achievement. The High School Journal, 88, (3), 35 - 44.

Instructional Leadership in Schools

Instructional Leadership is a key role of the principal in fostering improvement of instruction; it involves three core activities - supervision of instruction, evaluation of instruction, and professional development.

Key References

Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (2009). Instructional leadership: A research-based guide to learning in schools 3rd edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

DiPaola, M. & Hoy, W. K. (2008). Principals improving instruction: Supervision, evaluation, and professional development. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Alig-Mielcarek, J. & Hoy, W. K. (2005). Instructional leadership: Its nature, meaning, and influence. In Wayne K. Hoy & Cecil Miskel (Eds.) Educational Leadership and Reform (pp. 29-54). Greenwich, CN: Information Age.

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